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The influence of genetics on sport
icon clock January 10, 2019

Whether or not you become an outstanding athlete in the future can be influenced by many factors, from passion, through hard work to the region in which you live. However, one of the most important factors is what you do not have – genetics.

Sport is a family business, where from father to son, from mother to daughter, a particular sports discipline is cultivated and not without reason. Genes affecting the parent’s success are passed on to the child, passion is a separate matter.

How exactly genetics affects sports skills:

Slow children can not become fast adults, no matter how hard they train

The velocity partly depends on the proportion of slow and fast twitch muscle fibers in the body.

Quickly contracted muscles provide faster speed, and slow twitch muscles provide greater durability.

It is possible to train fast-twitch muscles for greater endurance, but you can not get slow-twitch muscles that work like fast-twitch muscles.

That’s why slow people can not get fast.

Ginger have higher tolerance for certain types of pain. The same gene mutation is responsible for both phenomena

Good eyesight is more important than reaction time

The human eye can not physically track the ball in the impact zone and tell the muscles where to move (baseball).

Instead, our brains recognize the ball when it leaves the pitcher’s hand and predicts where it will be based on visual information. Eye sight is the most important genetic aspect of an impact, and 58% of MLB players have a “higher” depth perception compared to 18% of non-athletes.

10% of people with European background have a genetic mutation that allows them to inject testosterone and never give positive results in the PED test

Paula Radcliffe, the best Marathon woman, put up a bad distance because of her high stature

Marathon runners are usually short, because having a large area in relation to the volume allows the body to cool faster.

Radcliffe has 5’8 (1.73) “- he is almost a foot higher than many marathoners. She lost in the summer games in 2004 and 2008 (on hot days), despite having a world record.

When the body reaches 40 degrees, it automatically slows down processes. For low and thin people, it is more difficult to hit this internal temperature.

Kenyans are genetically created for distance running because they have proportionally long legs, light limbs and larger lungs that have evolved over the centuries due to life at high altitudes

17% of Americans between the ages of 20 and 40, who are over 7 feet tall, play in the NBA.

The Jamaican sprint phenomenon is a perfect example of nature and joint nurturing

There are genetic factors that contribute to the fact that Jamaicans are the world’s best short distance runners. They usually have long limbs and narrow hips, and almost all of them have the “sprint” ACTN3 gene.

Sudan is a sleeping giant running at a distance

Genes cumulated by Kenyans who are responsible for the predisposition to distance races are also present among Sudanese citizens,

In contrast to Kenya, Sudan does not have a stable infrastructure that prevents the development of the system or culture. It is possible that this is an undiscovered nook full of potential marathoners.

Oscar Pistorius’ artificial legs gave him a huge advantage because prostheses made of carbon fiber were much lighter

The researchers found that the volume of legs is a significant factor affecting the endurance of a person.

Placing 1 kg weights on each runner’s bar means that he burns energy 24% faster.

The chances of being a genetically perfect endurance runner are 1 to quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = 1024)

Researchers identified 23 different gene variants that make someone a better natural endurance runner. The chances of having all 23 variants is 1 to billiard (1,000,000,000,000,000 = 1015).

Probably no one on Earth has more than 15 of 23 genes.

Your ability to improve along with your next training is genetic

Researchers have found that practice is not created equally for everyone.

Different people can do the same exercises for the same amount of time, and their improvement over time will be completely different. For example, the aerobic capacity of some people will not improve even with conscious training.

This is one of the reasons why you need around 3000 hours of practice to achieve the championship.

NBA players have an above-average armspan.

The ratio of growth to the human shoulder span is 1: 1, among NBA players this proportion can be 1: 1.063. Increased ratio of height to shoulder span allows you to play the game, and thus the player becomes more valuable due to his genetic predisposition.

Until 100 years ago, scientists thought that the more average type of body, the better it is for athletics.

When sport became more profitable (higher pay for the win), the principle of mediocrity changed, and with it types of bodies in sport. To make the best use of their conditions, many sports fields have selected specific body traits, eg jumpers and basketball players are tall, and marathon runners are short and slim.

In order to achieve success in specific sports fields, it is not enough to be just good, have passion or practice hard. Sometimes the determining factor is having the right genetic pool.

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